Ados, comment on vous manipule (Questions dados) (French Edition)
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Japan, which regularly achieves enviable scores in PISA and is a source of emulation for countries like the U. While there has been a profusion of policy statements and curriculum developments which have as their base science and society and the scientific citizen NRC, , and profound socio-political critiques of these reforms e. Others critique the governance of science and its collaboration with a repressive world order. From a very different perspective yet others have questioned the epistemological justification for any conjuncture between science as a discipline and social science Donnelly, , particularly its relationship to social action Hadzigeorgiou, So, what is the problem when policy statements about the science curriculum and scientific literacy highlight reflection and informed decision-making?
The relationship between informed decision-making at a political level and school science knowledge is at best notional and untested, and at worst misconceived Ryder, A high level of school knowledge of science is not a prerequisite for effective decision-making, and if there is a relationship it is likely to be highly complex Dawson, What is missing is how any enactment of curriculum reforms and their associated pedagogical strategies which instantiate social justice as their core commitment, reflect the political nature of a society that might be deemed desirable.
Both policy reforms usually in terms of democratic participation and national competitiveness and their critiques usually attacks on the instrumentalist and consumerist positions of the reforms identify extant problems: what they fail to do is first to map out what social and political changes are necessary to encompass desirable actions to achieve social justice through science education, and more strikingly how such reforms might be achieved, hence the necessity of action.
School curricula in many countries now incorporate citizenship or political literacy either as a subject in its own right or in a cross-curricular way. Although there are. I think here this is a common concern of SAQs which recognises at source the influence of the products of science and technology on all our lives, and my point is that the political and action implications need greater emphasis and theorisation. Contemporary views of social justice and the good society are frequently polarised between two foundational and incommensurate values: fairness in terms of equality broadly egalitarianism and freedom broadly libertarianism.
These portrayals are usually seen as a left-right divide respectively. Social justice for the left is a preference for the fair distribution of goods and necessities of life—access to health, food, education, and leisure—while for the right it is seen in terms of personal freedom ameliorated by some regulation to avoid poverty traps Kymlicka, Ensuring fair distribution will necessarily affect personal freedom through strong regulatory measures to soften the effects of polarisation of wealth such as differential taxation schemes, while those in support of personal freedom will view state regulation as an unnecessary impediment to entrepreneurship and enterprise.
An example of a socio-scientific issue which brings out these tensions is that of genetics where embryos can be genetically selected through ivf technology for certain features deemed desirable by prospective parents. A radical libertarian approach would be consistent with the technology that responds to market demands. This could portend a future where the wealthy have genetically selected children with so-called desirable characteristics which is not available to most people because of cost.
There are, of course, deep ethical issues contingent with this technology. An egalitarian position would be consistent with an approach that has the technology available to all or to none. Note that expropriation of eggs from Third World countries www. Freedom and equality are not the only foundational values in contemporary society—these include the common good communitarianism , rights libertarianism , identity identity politics and multiculturalism , feminism, and so forth.
Dworkin cited in Kymlicka, argues that all plausible political theories must be egalitarian at base, i. So the fundamental argument is both moral and political—not whether people are equal but how to interpret equality and respect for human rights through social institutions such as technoscience. There seems to me to be a case to foreground this problematic as an interpretative framework for approaching technoscientific issues.
School student activism therefore needs to: i. Engage critically with the political knowledge and skills in any democratic process for example, an explicit understanding of the potential conflicts between individual rights and distributive justice ; ii. Recognise the possibilities and limits of political action conflicts between different interest groups; an understanding that moral outrage drives action which requires a rational understanding of conflicts of interest Levinson, So, there is not just the case of incorporating a political literacy component knowledge of political systems and political morality but there is the question of turning politicallyinformed desires into action.
The Impact of Feminism and Postcolonialism
One of the problems, I think, which paralyses the possibilities of action in relation to knowledge is the dominance of the SSI paradigm in education that action presupposes conceptual knowledge see Table 1. Historically this has its roots in Platonic thought and the separation between episteme knowledge which arises from the contemplative, and hence privileged, life and techne, i.
The rationale behind modern theories of praxis, derived from both Hegel and Marx, is the realisation of consciousness through action, which is a human engagement. It is through praxis that a person comes to have an individual identity, but at the same time it always transpires within an intersubjective medium. The moral subject, the subject of praxis, is inconceivable in abstraction from communicative relations with others. McCarthy, , p. So the relationship between knowledge and action is turned the other way around, that is, in a Deweyan sense, knowledge is accrued through collaborative inquiry in acting upon the world Tobin, Action becomes an existential choice which becomes more challenging in a world saturated with discourses promoting a uniformity of consumption.
There are aspects of action through praxis which cohere well with SAQ philosophy: the importance of language through collaborative discourse although I see no good reason for any hierarchical analysis of these discourses and the prominence in the urgency of SAQs of living in a late modern uncertain world Giddens, Action, as opposed to techne Arendt, has no predetermined outcome. Because action involves participation and communication of diverse groups to change the world it must presuppose trust and openness. Knowledge grows through thought and action but is reflexive because the progress of action is always uncertain and leads to new sources of knowledge.
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However, unless political knowledge and nous underpin action the outcomes will be technical fixes, increased control or individualisation. Two examples illustrate my point. The first derives from a research informed approach on assessment, particularly influential in school science education in the U. The result of this research into Assessment for Learning. AfL, was disseminated as good practise in which dialogue, learning as a joint collective enterprise, was encouraged at the expense of metrics.
An important lynchpin of AfL was teacher autonomy and reflection so that such practices were to be adapted for the educational context and not to be ritualised. APP has now become entrenched as common practise. A second example concerns a group of year old students at a school who objected to the presence of sugary drinks dispensers on the grounds of health and effects on learning.
The students took their objections to the Principal who claimed the dispensers were beneficial because they raised money for out of school activities which were otherwise unaffordable. The students then drew on more research into the health and learning effects of sugary drinks, organised a campaign, and took their evidence and objections to the School Council, a student-teacher body set up to discuss school issues.
The point about these two examples is the contrasting deployment of political knowledge and skills in enacting change for social justice. In the first case, progressive research was appropriated by government power and used for purposes of stratification. Political resistance and organisation were needed to anticipate and oppose such changes.
In the second case political nous and scientific knowledge were used to muster support: in other words knowledgeable collaborative action together with political and scientific knowledge are presupposed by changes for social justice. An implicit understanding of what has been discussed until now is that SAQs and other science-society educational formulations take place in schools.
Schools, at least, are arenas where teachers and students can come together in a common enterprise such as engaging in SAQs.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
But, as also discussed earlier schools, while being released at least in the U. Reforms in science education accompanied these changes. The Beyond report in the U. Free schools and academies now being promulgated in the U. In the light of such changes political action emanating from critical consideration of technoscientific issues seems a bleak prospect.
So, however progressive the intentions of a school management they are unlikely to be effective in such an unpromising political environment. While fully recognising that any radical changes to teaching will only come when school reform and teaching are linked to wider social struggles, Fielding and Moss propose ten indicators of commitment to democratic practices in schools among which are radical roles which characterise relationships as practised between teachers and pupils.
I will aim to formulate six principles related to these roles within the context of socio-political scientific issues which are not sufficient in themselves but form the basis of realising meaningful action. Students as data source. Students opinions to be taken seriously as related to their own academic achievement and through socio-political issues within the school arena, e.
Students as active respondents. Teachers have a duty to engage in dialogue with students about identifying the kinds of social-scientific issues which concern them, i. Students as co-enquirers. Students encouraged to envisage what participatory research might look like and how it could be enacted, iv.
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Students as knowledge creators. Students with staff support use their emerging political and scientific knowledge through co-enquiry to suggest change. Students as joint authors. Students discuss strategy with peers and staff how change is to be enacted. Inter-generational learning as participatory democracy. Students and staff develop curricular schemes for involving younger students, and to engage extra-school agencies in support for enacting change.
Mémoire de maîtrise de Henry Stone Cabins | solides de Platon spirituel
The above suggestions are only a start for what enacted SAQs might look like but a vision which involves shared and negotiated values is a basis for further change. I have suggested that the incorporation of political knowledge and literacy through SAQs and a commitment to action would build on a well-worked out pedagogic and curricular base.
The process of change would mean negotiating very different regional and national educational territories as well as overcoming performative indicators stemming from a neoliberal hegemony in school education. But the process of change in unpromising environments can generate a fruitful dialectic.
The awareness of limitations in what can be achieved can, nonetheless, raise consciousness about the possibilities of action which in itself is a form of action. In the last few years educators in fields in science and mathematics have developed innovative curriculum materials which challenge the STEM discourse, e. The content of STS education. The human condition 2nd edition.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. BALL, S. The teacher's soul and the terrors of performativity.
Redefining Latin American Historical Fiction
Journal of Education Policy, 18 2 , DOI: Globalizing students acting for the common good. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48 6 , Research in Science Education, 42 1 , Class, codes and control Vol. London: Routledge. Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice.