Modular In-Plant Office Engineering and Design Manual - National Partitions, Inc.
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This housing type was affordable and tran- sient, an ideal model for those struggling to find work in different regions. These trailers were used as tem- porary housing for migrant and emigrant workers during WWII, thus furthering its widespread use. After the war, many companies that began as recreational mobile trailer manufacturers shifted into producing permanent mobile housing. As this temporary hous- ing type slowly became a more accepted means of permanent housing, it eventually became larger and more sophisticated in its methods of production and marketing.
A major shift in the transition from mobile to perma- nent housing was the move from an 8-foot-wide to a 1 0-foot-wide trailer, allowing for more comfortable liv- ing. This shift had not only technical adaptations, but also social implications being accepted widely. The Figure 1. This change continued to progress as 1 2-foot-wide and even 1 4-foot-wide mobile homes were manufactured in In , large mobiles called "double-wides" were introduced.
Each module was pulled to site and set in place making a foot-wide home. In , the code changed, distinguishing permanent homes as being those designed to the standard code i. Today, the HUD code homes have changed their name from mobile to manufactured housing. Sometimes confused for manufactured housing, modular homes are built to IBC code, are without a chassis, and are set onsite permanently. This is due to its lack of design variety and construction qual- ity. Mobile dwellings have been the victims of hur- ricanes and tornadoes, becoming a talking point for construction professionals, many of whom would like to see manufactured housing fall forever.
But the mobile home meets the basic needs of shelter, and at a cost the majority of citizens can afford. Despite society and architects' loathing of this building type, it is estimated that the manufactured home indus- try accounts for 4 percent of the market share for new single-family housing in the United States.
It has succeeded because it is not a part of the waste-laden architecture and con- struction industry methods of delivery. It has emerged autonomous and has thrived on its own terms of sup- ply and demand for nearly a century. It is built to a lower code. Because of this, prefabrica- tion, the method by which manufactured housing is realized, has come under attack as a subpar method of construction for all housing.
It is only recently that manufactured methods of housing production are be- ing evaluated to create different levels or degrees of quality in mainstream housing. This can be most eas- ily seen in the work of modular housing companies and prefab architects like Michelle Kaufmann and Joe Tanney at Resolution: 4 Architecture.
The key tenants of these homes center upon the advantages that the manufactured housing industry teaches— that build- ing in modules considerably reduces the overhead and onsite labor and can dramatically reduce initial cost. Unlike mobile homes, Kaufmann and Tanney have used modular housing to infuse a higher level of sustainability, quality control, and craft. More will be discussed concerning modular construction and other architects working in this area in Chapter 9. Early indications that precast was used can be found in the evi- dence of precast fountains and sculptural pieces in early Roman and later during the nineteenth cen- tury.
Precast has also been found in burial vaults in cemeteries across the United States dating back the turn of the twentieth century. Despite the ad- vances made by the Romans, concrete was lost to the world for 13 centuries until, in , British engineer John Smeaton used hydraulic lime in con- crete. Later, in the 1 s, Portland cement was first used. Joseph Monier made concrete flowerpots with wire reinforcement. The greatest advance to concrete construction was taking this concept into 1.
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Advanced pouring techniques and the availability of raw material make concrete acces- sible for a myriad of functions. The first use of rein- forced precast is attributed to French businessman E.
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Coignet, who developed a system of compo- nents similar to elements in the construction of the casino in Biarritz in Five years later, Frangois Hennebique is attributed with the first precast modu- lare, developed for gatekeepers' lodges. Therefore, prestressed, precast concrete was first widely used in civil engineering projects such as water culverts and bridges. Architect Louis I.
Kahn and engineer August Komendant employed prestressed concrete on the Richards Medical Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania campus, one of its first uses in ar- chitecture in Prestressed precast today is common, however, and continues to be used more often in larger commercial and industrial buildings that warrant its great strength and mass, as well as its financial investment. The development of prestressed concrete is congru- ent with precast developments. Prestressing at the plant allows precast elements to be stronger, lighter, and an overall better use of material.
Although a San Francisco engineer patented prestressed concrete in 1 , it did not emerge as an accepted building ma- terial in the United States until a half-century later. The shortage of steel in Europe after World War II coupled with technological advancements in high-strength concrete and steel made prestressed concrete the building material of choice during European post- war reconstruction. North America's first prestressed concrete structure, the Walnut Lane Memorial Bridge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, however, was not com- pleted until In conventional reinforced concrete, the high ten- sile strength of steel is combined with concrete's great compressive strength to form a structural ma- terial that is strong in both compression and ten- sion.
The principle behind prestressed concrete is that compressive stresses induced by high-strength steel tendons in a concrete member before loads Figure 1. Using elaborate cast iron formwork and machinery allowed for up to three-story houses to be cast in a single pour. The iron formwork proved cumbersome and difficult. It was not until Charles Ingersoll, a wealthy New Jersey manufacturer who brought the idea of making the forms out tof wood, that Edison's single-pour concept was built.
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Construction began in in Union, New Jersey. Fewer than houses were actually realized. However, today's methods of production in auto- mobile manufacturing have moved dramatically beyond notions of standardization, economy of scale, and flow. This enlightenment is af- fecting not only prefab technology development, but the social constructions by which buildings are produced, their contract structure, and the inter- face of players. Digital fabrication is potentially a method by which the promises of prefabrication — complementary increase in design and production quality— may be realized.
First is the link to the Industrial Revolution and mass pro- duction already discussed in this chapter. The other is that of digital automation. Automation is more computer technology than manufacturing. It is the process of creating machines that are automata, or have been purposely built to mimic the process of skilled human labor, controlled by instruction given via numerical command or computer numerical control CNC. Developed in the military, the Air Force after World War II sought to expand its manufacturing system to produce repetitive and complex geometric com- ponents for planes and weapons applications.
Lewis Mumford in Technics and Civilization shares the history of Benedictine monasteries in which numerical control emerged as a technique of regularization for the behavior of the monks. Mumford states that this marked a change in the human perception of time, relinquishing our physi- ological bodies from the rhythms of solar move- ments and seasons to being dictated by numerical control.
Bookkeeping methods advanced in tandem with trade calculation, and soon after, the notions of per- spective drawing, cartography, and planetary science expanded. This all has come into fruition by virtue of the implementation of mathematics to understand spatial and social ends. This infatuation has not re- ceded; in fact, the Industrial Revolution opened the door to modern-day computation through a 1 1 sequencing.
Numerical sequences became impor- tant to America in the materials, patents, and com- munications systems related to the telegraph and railroad era. This was accomplished by using punch cards as the nu- merical input similar to numerical sequencing drives in contemporary computing. The Jacquard Loom is an excellent example of the theory of pro- grammable machines. Punch card technology stayed relatively rudimentary in its effects on building and manufacturing until computers became widely avail- able.
Early systems developed by Herman Hollerith in the mechanical tabulator based on punch cards were not that different from the Jacquard punch card system until advances were made to coded tapes, and ultimately into the hard drive of machines by up- loading information. It was not until the s that computers were used for manufacturing production, opening up possibilities for digitally controlled ma- chinery.
Today, small manufacturers and fabricators use CNC ma- chinery for their day-to-day operations. The decade brought a host of software applications from mechanical engineering such as CATIA, and other parametric platforms that allowed individuals to rationalize the design pro- cess of highly irregular nonplatonic geometry.
This same idea is now being implemented into architecture and construction practice by way of building information modeling, or BIM. On the surface, digital design and manufactur- ing has the potential to offer innovative solutions, increase quality, and stabilize cost. The promise of prefabrication that was touted by Ford and others may be realized in this new paradigm as society and the building professions continue to shape its future direction.
The chapter will re- view the evolution of the architectural profession as it emerged in the twentieth century in the United States and the lessons learned from failures in prefabs dur- ing this time. The lessons can be applied to future successes in the twenty-first century. A master builder during the Renaissance was an architect, engineer, and contractor.
Brunelleschi, for example, served as master builder to oversee the design and construction of the Duomo in Florence in This model of practice continued until the Enlightenment Period, an era in which traditional thought was questioned. Often referred to as the Age of Reason, science began to take a role in every- day life in the eighteenth century. California Crysta l Palace. Great B ritain Pre-cutwood housing, U. These movements manifest themselves in architectural education by the establishment of sys- tematic teaching methods and models for the edu- cation of masses in the building sciences.
The Ecole Polytechnique in the late 1 s and the subsequent Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in the early s established the "modern architect. Within his philosophy of architecture was a deep understanding of the architect in indus- trial production. Consequently, education placed an equal emphasis on technique and composition.
In the early s, there were three primary methods of becoming an architect: being trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts; being schooled in an engineering-oriented academy, also in France; or apprenticing in the office of a master architect, who had either studied or trained under the same education system set up in the 1 s by the French.
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Most architects of the time had a combi- nation of the three training options in some fashion. However, the United States had an additional option to training— a culture of the self-taught professional- ism that stemmed from the young American pioneer- ing spirit. These self-taught technical pioneers were a bit skeptical of formal education and therefore, a shop culture or apprenticeship was always favored in tandem with university learning. In addition, in- i Figure 2.
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The left column of the timeline includes the nonarchitectural events discussed in Chapter 1 while the right column lists selected archi- tectural events covered in Chapter 2. Figure 2.
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Many of the first schools of architecture were developed in institutions where sci- entific research was rapidly progressing and readily accepted, including Harvard, MIT, and Penn. In order to compete in the building market, an area that was readily overtaken by craftsmen and do-it-yourselfers, architects had to distinguish themselves as use- ful tradespeople. In retrospect, this might have done architecture more of a disservice in the U.
More importantly, however, "science" implied that there existed a sys- tematic method of delivering a technical education by which one could become an architect. This was also the case for engineers, mechanics, and others as- sociated with building industry trades.
Although the system for becoming an architect was not scientific in our current understanding of applied sciences, it created a sense of professionalism that doctors and other scientists in society had at the time.